This house is significant due to its role in fostering the racial diversity that currently exists in South Seattle, the economic diversity in South Seattle, and the significance of Rainier Valley in the general development of South Seattle. The residency of a Japanese American family in this house during the 1920s and 1930s is consistent with gradual movement of Japanese Americans to Beacon Hill, which contributed to the ethnic diversity that currently predominates in South Seattle. The house is also significant through its occupancy by families working in downtown and Seattle’s industrial districts, illustrating the economic diversity that characterizes Beacon Hill and South Seattle. The occupations of the house’s residents illustrates the importance of the Rainier Valley as a commercial and transportation corridor connecting the residential neighborhoods in South Seattle to the city’s industrial districts and downtown areas.
This single-family residence is located in North Beacon Hill, near Jefferson Park. The house was constructed in 1909 and has a history of many short-term occupants. By 1927, Masaru and Kimi Matsumoto, a Japanese American family, occupied the residence, and they remained in the house until 1935. From 1936 through 1938, Robert and Rosella Farrell were residents, and Robert worked in various industrial jobs. The 1939 Polk directory lists Mildred M. and Joe J. and Sprague, a metal worker. Ralph VonHolweg also lived in the house in 1939, but he only remained there for one year. The Spragues lived in the house until 1952; and, after they vacated, Lloyd A. and Darlene Arneson occupied the house for one year. Lloyd worked for the Alaskan Copper and Brass Company. By 1954, Gerhard and Evelyn Berg occupied the house and remained there until 1956. During this time period, Gerhard worked a welder. In 1957, Elda M. and Richard A. Hosmer, an employee at Boeing, lived in the house and remained there through 1959. In 1960, Arthur Glave and Mrs. Hester K. Rogers occupied the residence. In 1961 or 1962, they were joined by William A. and Evelyn Howard, who both worked at the City Dry Cleaners. The 1963 Polk Directory only lists Hester Rogers as the principal occupant. In 1964, the building is vacant for a period; but, from 1965 through 1967, Mrs. Lanora Kirker was resident. Pete and Betty Sibbald moved into the house after Mrs. Kirker vacated and remained there through 1969. Pete worked as a technician at Boeing, and Betty was a receptionist at Walthew Warner and Keefe.
Substantial residential and commercial development in Beacon Hill occurred when a transportation corridor connecting the Rainier Valley to Downtown Seattle and Seattle’s industrial district was constructed along Rainier Avenue. Development in the valley was facilitated by logging during the 1880s, the operation of the Rainier Valley Electric Railway in the 1890s, and the Jackson and Dearborn Street re-grades in the 1900s. Milling was the primary commercial industry during the last part of the nineteenth century although some agricultural activity existed. As residential development increased, Rainier Avenue gradually became the principal commercial corridor connecting the residential neighborhoods of South Seattle to downtown, the International District, and Seattle’s industrial districts. World War II brought additional building growth related to the wartime industry, as well as the influx of defense workers to nearby Boeing and the Duwamish shipyards.
Beacon Hill has historically been a more economically and socially diverse neighborhood than Mount Baker to its east. There was less enforcement of residential deed restrictions and a greater availability of smaller, more affordable housing. One of the first land owners of Beacon Hill was George Riley, an African American from Portland, Oregon. George Riley, organizer of the Workingmen’s Joint Stock Association in Portland, arranged the organization’s purchase of property on Beacon Hill, which was platted in 1871 as Riley’s Addition. Furthermore, the northern end of Rainier Valley, which was originally settled by German immigrants, acquired the historical nickname “Garlic Gulch” during the early twentieth century due to the growing strength and predominance of its Italian American community.
In addition to the Italian American community in northern Rainier Valley, the Japanese American community grew and expanded southwards to Beacon Hill during the first two decades of the twentieth century as a result of relatively less restrictive immigration and exclusion laws. While the 1889 Alien Land Laws excluded non-citizens from owning land, they were able to purchase property under the names of their second generation family members. When the Immigration Act of 1924 inhibited further Japanese immigration, they were still able to continue expanding their families and businesses in Seattle. However, after President Roosevelt issued his Executive Order 9066 in 1942, the Japanese Americans in the Pacific Northwest were sent to internment camps and their properties and businesses were usually confiscated. After World War II, formerly incarcerated Japanese Americans returned to Seattle, successfully rebuilding their social networks and businesses and again emerging as a significant force in Seattle.
Beacon Hill’s diverse beginnings were reinforced by its landscape features, including Jefferson Park located at the center of Beacon Hill. Originally named Beacon Hill Park, Jefferson Park has exerted a profoundly positive influence on the development and social cohesion of the Beacon Hill neighborhood through its sustained use by local residents. Originally acquired by the City of Seattle in 1898, it was integrated into Seattle’s Olmsted system of parks. In 1915, the first public golf course west of the Mississippi opened at Jefferson Park. From 1919 to 1941, the year before many Japanese Americans were interned in the Northwest, the Japanese-American Language School in Seattle used the park for its annual picnics. Japanese Golf Association held annual tournaments beginning in 1931. African Americans, Japanese Americans, and Chinese Americans organized golf clubs during the 1940s and 1950s because they were excluded from white clubs; they used Jefferson Park as their home course.
The Jefferson Park community center and golf course remains open to the public and the Beacon Hill neighborhood continues to be an ethnically diverse, working-class community. Its businesses and public spaces, including Jefferson Park and Dr. Jose Rizal Park, reinforce this diversity.