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Summary for 4400 35th AVE / Parcel ID 9297301810 / Inv # SCL001

Historic Name: Avalon Substation Common Name:
Style: Art Deco, Art Deco - Streamline Moderne Neighborhood: Duwamish
Built By: Year Built: 1954
This rectifier substation was constructed in 1953-54 in order to convert conventional Alternating Current (AC) to the Direct Current (DC), which powered the Seattle Transit System’s electric trolley buses. More than a decade earlier, the City had converted its electric streetcar system of public transportation to the trolley buses. Since the City’s purchase of the rail lines of the Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power Company in 1919, the Municipal Street Railway System had experienced severe financial difficulties, culminating in bankruptcy by 1938. By this time, the system, which consisted of 26 electric streetcar routes, three cable car lines, and 18 gasoline-powered bus lines, was considered archaic and in need of extensive modernization. Under the auspices of the newly created Seattle Transportation Commission, the new Seattle Transit System replaced the streetcars with trolley buses with a loan secured from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in 1939. The first trolleys began carrying passengers in April 1940, and the last streetcar ended its last run a year later on April 13, 1941. By 1943, the new trolley system had been finalized and used City Light’s inexpensive hydroelectric power. This conversion required an upgrade in the equipment used to power the system, resulting in the construction of the Roxbury and University rectifier substations and the installation of additional equipment at existing City Light facilities, including the North Substation. The difficulty of transmitting Direct Current over long distances required multiple rectifier substations distributed throughout the City. Within ten years, further modernizations were necessary to supply Direct Current to the Transit System with higher efficiency and reduced conversion costs. The modern Mercury Arc rectifiers, which replaced the obsolete rotary equipment, also allowed non-attended operation of conversion facilities. From 1951-1955, City Light added equipment at the new Broad Street Substation and constructed new substations at South, University, North, Avalon, Fremont, Leary, Gatewood, and Olympic Hill. At Avalon, the new rectifier substation was constructed between 1953 and 1954 with two 750-kilowatt rectifiers, providing the 600-volt Direct Current. The electric trolley buses operated throughout the City for another decade until 1963, when diesel buses replaced them north of the Ship Canal and south of Spokane Street. Ten years later, the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (METRO) took over the Seattle Transit System, ending over fifty years of municipal control of the City’s public transportation system. This modest utilitarian building is significant for its associations with the municipally owned public transportation system and its modernization during its years of operation.
Completed in 1954, this typical one-story rectifier substation is situated on a small parcel on the southern side of SW Genesee Street near the intersection with 35th Avenue SW. Electrical equipment fills the fenced yard at the rear of the substation. This reinforced concrete building has a rectangular plan, which measures approximately 46 feet by 35 feet. The Modern design of this flat roof building displays some Streamline Moderne stylistic influences. These include a smooth concrete exterior incised with lines to create strong horizontal bands and a shallow curved roof over the single entrance door on the principal north elevation. Two concrete piers divide this elevation as well as the south elevation into three bays. In addition to the entrance door within the western bay, the north elevation has a covered window opening set high on the wall in the center bay. The west elevation has a window opening on the upper wall of the northern end set with a wood panel and a vent. On the south elevation, the window openings in the lower sections of the end bays have been covered as well. The east elevation has a streamlined flat roof over the large opening located south of center, which contains an overhead metal door. The coping of the roof parapet is lined with sheet metal. Despite these alterations, the building retains good physical integrity.

Detail for 4400 35th AVE / Parcel ID 9297301810 / Inv # SCL001

Status: Yes - Inventory
Classication: Building District Status:
Cladding(s): Concrete Foundation(s): Concrete - Poured
Roof Type(s): Flat Roof Material(s): Unknown
Building Type: Government - Public Works Plan: Rectangular
Structural System: Concrete - Poured No. of Stories:
Unit Theme(s): Architecture/Landscape Architecture, Science & Engineering, Transportation
Changes to Original Cladding: Intact
Changes to Plan: Intact
Changes to Windows: Extensive
Major Bibliographic References
City of Seattle DCLU Microfilm Records.
Seattle Department of Lighting. Annual report / City of Seattle, Department of Lighting. Seattle, WA: 1910-1974.

Photo collection for 4400 35th AVE / Parcel ID 9297301810 / Inv # SCL001

Photo taken Nov 13, 2000
App v2.0.1.0